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His sons, Louis and Pierre, dropped the Flemish name Elle and adopted "Ferdinand" as their family name. Bayle, , pp. Lettres, I, p. This passage proves that the portrait was painted between March i and March ig, at Paris. Pierre Bayle, La Haye, , Vol. I, and in the Dictionnaire. XVII , since they represent him at the age of Now Bayle was born in , which brings the date to To his eider brother.

Nouvelles Lettres, I, p. Bayle was but a poor tutor and could not afford the high remuneration to which this fashionable painter of the nobility and the wealthy was accustomed. In a letter of May 18, , he complained. Il s'en est plaint, et il a eu raison; mais j'en ai encore plus de me plaindre de ceux de qui j'ai pris conseil.

On March 15 the portrait was finally finished, but not dry, and Bayle was much distressed over the delay, since he had just learned that his mother, who had been waiting so long for this keepsake, was seriously ill. The French discovered' Northern mythology and poetry through Mallet's works of to This discovery and Ossian started an anti-classic Ossianic-Scandinavian movement, largely due to Mallet's failure to distinguish between Celts and Scandinavians.

Macpherson furnishes a dominant note of lyric melancholy or "Wettschmerz"; Mallet supplies themes of rude heroic life, "couleur barbare. This applies particularly to Ragnar's Dying Ode, in which precursors of Romanticism thought they found the typical Northern Hero.. The details and ramifications of Ragnar's triumphal reception in pre-Romantic Europe are presented in the second volume of my NorthernAntiquities, from which 1 also g! According to the saga and tradition the Danish scald and viking, Ragnar Lodbrok, was captured by King Ella of Northumbria and thrown into a serpents' den, where, just before being bitten to death, he chanted a swan song in twenty-nine stanzas, known as the Lodbrokarkvida or the.

In this death song Ragnar recounts his notable deeds and expresses his joy at the splendid welcome awaiting him in Odin's Valhalla.

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OM and Literature. The Icelandic text in the Bjarka Saga bas "Hneig Agnarr nidr, hlaejandi a jord ok do sidan," that is, "Agnar drops with a laugh and then dies. This incident is the direct prototype of Parny's hero, Elvin, "who was stabbed, fell, laughed and died. It is imitated by Millevoye in his Alfred, also of There "the Dane laughs and dies," with a note explaining that "to die with a laugh was a sort of point d'honneur with the Danes. The Biar Legend was naturally quoted together, in most cases, with Lodbrok's identical Ridens Moriar, but Tressan added further interest to the theme by comparing Ragnar's death song with war-songs of "the savages of Canada.


It is a tendency which prepares the way for Chateaubriand's Atala. It meets the popular hankering for a return to the primitive, as advocated by Rousseau. It helps to explain the favor of Ossian and the coincident revelation of ancient Scandinavian literature. As Macpherson's melancholy Ossian was lamentably lacking in this respect, Ragnar's defiant energy and utter lack of morbid sentimentality, though not of tragic melancholy, formed, with other renowned specimens of Icelandic poetry, a significant counterpoise to one-sided influence from Ossian.

If Ragnar had the fortitude to die with a smile in spite of tortures by venomous snakes, the ever-wailing Ossian would be a pitiful parallel. A different type of Primitive Man was needed- and the Canadian Indians filled the need. Two mistranslations, with resulting misconceptions, of Ragnar's Ode helped its popularity. Yet Wormius left it out and thereby necessarily added to the heroic effect. Modern research confirms the part played by enemy skulls in the life of primitive peoples of Europe, including the Celts, with whom the Scandinavians were confused.

We must therefore assume that the skull-incident in Ragnar's Ode has in many minds served as corroboration of current ideas of these "Celts" or "Scythians. One result of this "ethnographic mediey" was to despoil the revelation of Ragnar of some of his genuine novelty, for he was, after all, a "Celt" like the other Scandinavians!


Despite this delusion, the skull-incident of the Ode is presented as intrinsically curious and is recorded by about sixty French writers. Wormius and Mallet are the usual sources, but Scandinavian and German seventeenth and eighteenth-century antiquarians contributed to the misconception. Pelloutier had substantiated his point about the Celtic skull-drinking with a reference to Ragnar's ancient Ode as exemplifying some of the Scandinavian "plaisirs d'une autre vie.

His remarks suggest the correct understanding. The comparatively recent custom among IndoGermanic peoples of using enemy skulls as drinking vessels may in part account for the frequency in Indo-Germanic languages of names for drinking cups side by side with root-resembling terms for "head" and "skuM.

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However this may be, no one seemed to question Ragnar's Ode as a perfect sample of primitive poetry. But was that sort of blood-dripping story not altogether too savage, too "cannibalistic" for refined, though romantically groping minds? Pelloutier had endeavored to exonerate the ancient Celts from having been maneaters, even if he admitted that they drank from human skulls and perhaps occasionally feasted on a fallen enemy or the body of a decrepit old relative stewed with other meats. He had argued, obviously from Montaigne's Des Cannibales, that eating slain enemies or dead relatives, was in reality not nearly so bad as torturing persons to death, as was done in the so-called civilized nations.

He had thereby stirred up the age-old question of humanity's "golden age," and had anticipated the discussions arising from Rousseau's "nature-gospel.

Both knew the horrors of the Revolution and had had time to reflect. Here the hall of the Revolutionary Constituent Assembly and the Convention is likened to an Olympus reminding of "fierce Odin in his bloody paradise, dispensing to his chosen ones the drink of immortality in human skulls. The FrancoScandinavian historian, Calleville, had pictured the ancient Danes as "ferocious, restless men, who blush at peace, who will only die on the field of battle, and whose supreme bliss consists in drinking mead from the skulls of their enemies.

MaHet's and Tressan's popular theory of locating the birth of Chivalry! He admits that women are freest in the North, but finds that Courage there is an "aimost detestable" picture of "the most odious ferocity" in "this strange paradise, where the heroes slash themselves for fun, and where mead-drinking from the skulls of their enemies offers true enjoyments of cannibals. If Lesser had only known that the "cannibalistic" enjoyments merely derived from a mistranslation! The ensuing public discussion is significant, but it was not till that the deserving Franco-German historian Depping, delivered the philological and historical proofs of Wormius' mistranslation and the resulting misconception of ancient Scandinavia.

Enlightened publicists henceforth have the correct version of Ragnar's Ode. In self-defense they refer to the only two cases in Icelandic literature that support the idea of Wormius. This book had a remarkable run in France and was probably known to Victor Hugo. Tomemos por ejemplo el conocidisimo cantar:. Es una estrofa recitable y cantable. Cuando se canta, si.

Hay, sin embargo, una especie de verso en castellano, que se puede medir por pies, o grupos rftmicos, nombre que me parece mas apropiado. Es el verso que nuestros antepasados llamaron el verso de Arte Mayor. Ya hemos visto que Nebrija niega que existan en espanol silabas largas y breves.


II, libro I, cap. Bello, op. Este sistema de pies acentuales esta todav! Sobran ejemplos: el Poema del Cid, muchos de los versos de Juan Ruiz, los romances antiguos, etc. Esta es la pura verdad, y en vez de temerla, debemos afrontarla valientemente tratando de Ilegar a comprender su verdadero ritmo sin tratar de corregir a los poetas que la escribieron. Por ejemplo, son perfectamente rftmicos estos famosos versos de Tennyson:. El contar escueta y Ilanamente las silabas puede pasar en una lengua como la francesa, donde todas las silabas tienen aproximadamente el mismo valor cuantitativo y acentual, pero no en lenguas, como la espanota y la inglesa, que son esencialmente acentuales.

Veamos los siguientes endecasilabos:. De su asercion se deduce por rigurosa logica que una pausa al principio del verso equivale a una silaba, lo que es absurdo, pues todos los versos tienen pausa al principio. Sobre estos dos supuestos fenomenos ha escrito estensamente el Sr. Lo anterior prueba que no se pueden escribir versos en espanol por el simple procedimiento de contar las sflabas.

He aqu! Knapp, Madrid, ; Garcilaso, Works, edic. Los versos que cito, a pesar de tener once silabas, son en realidad versos de Arte Mayor por sus acentos. Garcilaso, op. Que ser por vuestra causa padecidos?

He escogido versos de Garcilaso porque es un poeta a quien no se le puede acusar de tener mal oMo. Martmez de la Rosa. Benot, op. De la Barra op, cit.

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En los asonantes se ve palpablemente que el acento es el todo al final de verso: co vale tanto como eotMco. Sin embargo, el primero tiene dos sHabas mas que el segundo. Urena escribe: El verso de cuatro silabas, fluctuando a menudo entre seis y dos," etc.