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Europe and the Mediterranean , Oxford This would explain why six of the Visconti-Sforza cards have a different style Strength, Temperance, The Star, The Moon, The Sun and The World : they might have been painted at the same time, though by a different hand.
Modification: a comment on the primary cards.
In , Mikl s Boskovitz, an art historian, made a discovery that improves the attribution of the primary cards in the Bergamo-New York triumphi. They would have been completed ca Boskovitz recognized a stylistic match between the Lancelot illustrations and a sketch on the cover of a Cremonese ledger, specifically the record book for a charitable organization, the Consortium of St Omobono.
This drawing is dated to and is documented as the work of Ambrogio Bembo. They collaborated closely in the s and thereafter. Judging from the St Omobono sketch, the Lancelot illustrations are also by Ambrogio.
The Lancelot characters — in their physiques, poses and costumes — are closely akin to those in our primary cards. Some experts reasonably assume that Ambrogio was responsible for most of our triumphi. All the brothers worked in very similar styles. Further research may allow us to distinguish the handiwork of each brother. Objections: two comments on the secondary cards.
On the contrary, a decidedly different date is strongly suggested by the disparity in style, the Gothic majority of cards versus the Renaissance subset of six cards. We also recall that the card stock of the Gothic cards is heavier than the Renaissance cards. This probably indicates that the secondary artist was employed in an entirely different workshop.
Furthermore, he may actually have had a different patron, for the six later cards lack the Visconti-Sforza emblems so abundant in the Bembo cards. The main motive for distinguishing six cards from the majority is precisely the contrast of styles. And he would have had no difficulty, for he was fully indoctrinated in the family style. The secondary cards, I insist, are from some other source, one with a different aesthetic. Secondary Repairs and Added Details.
First, I refer to the areas at the feet of the principal figures where green grass is depicted fig. All the grass in the secondary cards is intact. I observe that the secondary artist repaired many of the primary cards at least 13 court cards and 11 trumps and the Fool. Among the primary cards, the pigment for the grass badly failed, and the secondary artist applied a new layer. However, the deeper strata did not provide an adequate ground for the repair. That too has eroded over time.
Within the rendering of grass, we can see that the secondary plants are more refined than those typical of the Bembo workshop.
Among our cards, the Bembo plant-life survives only in the upper zone of the Justice card. The primary cards, as previously noted, were painted ca We can allow a generation or so for the deterioration of the original greenery.
This again brings us forward at least to the s. The later artist also added some of his special enhancements. Wherever hills and cliffs appear, not only in the secondary cards but in many of the Bembo cards, those landscape details are touches by the later artist. For instance fig.
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As for the characteristic cliff edge, it is prominent in four of the secondary cards and has been inserted into several primary cards. Who was the artist who regularly decorated his landscapes with rolling hills and rocky cliffs? The Secondary Artist. Credit is long overdue. My nominee is Cristoforo de Predis We have an abundance of images from his career as an illuminator. In four manuscripts, his handiwork is beyond doubt, for he has carefully inscribed his name. Here I will depend mostly on a well-known manuscript called De Sphaera.
The manuscript is most often dated to about Galeazzo and his mother were enthusiastic about astrology. De Sphaera is an astrological manual. It depicts the planetary deities. These are not baby deities but are adult humans with qualities supposedly instilled by the gods or goddesses who dominate a given horoscope. The following comparisons are offered as evidence that Cristoforo painted the six classical trumps in the Bergamo-New York triumphi. None of the above comparisons, when standing alone, would uphold him as the source of the relevant trumps. However, when we take these comparisons as a group, the case seems convincing.
Cristoforo de Predis was the illuminator who completed the Bergamo-New York triumphi. He did not attempt to identify the card-makers.